In ancient English literature on falconry, the word “falcon” referred only to a female peregrine falcon, while the word “falcon” or “falcon” referred to a female falcon. A male falcon or falcon was called a “cel animal” (sometimes spelled “tercel”) because it was about a third smaller than the female.   This traditional Arab sport has developed throughout Europe. Falconry is an icon of Emirati and Arab culture. Falconry is legal in every state except Hawaii and is the most regulated field sport in the United States. The combination of federal and state regulations that guide the practice of sport today is in place to protect birds and ensure the sport is played at the highest level. Falconry is the art and sport of hunting wildlife with a trained bird of prey. While there is no consensus on when or where the sport actually began, it is generally accepted that falconry originated somewhere in the Far East (probably China or Japan) over 4,000 years ago, making it the oldest sport in the world. While many are aware of its presence in Europe in the Middle Ages (and today), few are aware of its deep roots in the Middle East, where it is still prevalent today. Several birds of prey are used in falconry. They are generally classified as: In the United States, the sport of falconry is practiced as it has always been practiced since its inception, albeit with some modern twists, such as the use of scales and telemetry. There are approximately 4,000 licensed falconers in the United States, of which only about 70 are located in the state of Ohio. Anyone can legally own birds of prey registered or bred in captivity, although falconers point out that this is not synonymous with falconry, which specifically involves hunting in living quarries with a trained bird.
A bird of prey that is kept only as a pet or possession, although permitted by law, is not considered a hawk. Birds can be used for breeding or kept after hunting, but falconers believe it is preferable for fit young birds to be transported to the quarry. Referenzen 1. von Hohenstaufen, F. 1248. De arte venandi avibus. Manuscript. 2. Craighead, J.J. and Craighead, F.C. 1956. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
3. Brüll, H. 1964. Das Leben deutscher Greifvögel. Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany. 4. Cade, T.J. 1986.
International Zoo Yearbook 24/25:1-20. 5. Saarland, circa 1988. Reintroduction of the peregrine falcon in Germany. PP. 629-635 in Cade, T.J., Enderson, J.H., Thelander, C.G. & White C.M. (eds.). Peregrine falcon populations, their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund Inc., Boise, Idaho, USA 6. Sherrod, S.K., Heinrich, W.R., Burnham, W.A., Barclay J.H.
and Cade, T.J. 1981. Hacking: a method of releasing peregrine falcons and other birds of prey. The Peregrine Fund, Boise., Idaho, USA 7. Jones, C.G., Heck, W., Lewis, R.E., Mungroo, Y., Slade, G. & Cade, T. 1994. The restoration of the kestrel population of Maurice Falco punctatus. Ibis 137:173-S180. 8. Wallace, P.M. 2001.
Summaries. 4th Eurasian Congress on Birds of Prey. Seville-Spain 25-29 September 2001. 197. 9. Murton, R.K. 1971. Man and birds. Collins, London, England. 10. Tempel, SA 1972. Artificial insemination with raised birds of prey.
Nature 237:287-288. 11. Cooper, J.E. and Greenwood, A.G. 1981. Recent advances in bird of prey disease research. Chiron Publications, Keighley, England. 12. Redig, PT, Cooper, JE, Remple, DJ & Hunter, DB `93. Raptor Biomedicine University Press, Minneapolis, USA 13. Peyton, R.B., Vorro, J., Grise, L., Tobin, R.
and Eberhardt, R. 1995. North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference Transactions 60:181-192. 14. Kenward, R.E. 1999. Bird of prey predation problems and solutions. Journal of Raptor Research 33: 73-75.
15. Kenward, R.E., Hall, D.G., Walls, S.S. and Hodder, K.H. 2001. Factors influencing hawk predation (Buteo buteo) in released pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Journal of Applied Ecology 38: 813-822. 16. Hunt, W.G. 1998.
Raptor swimmer balanced by Moffat. Oikos 82:191-197. 17. Kenward, R.E., Marcström, V. and Karlbom, M. 1999. Demographic estimates from radio tagging: age-specific survival and reproduction patterns in goshawks. Zeitschrift für Tierökologie 68: 1020-1033.
18. Kenward, R.E., Walls, S.S., Hodder, K.H., Pahkala, M., Freeman, S.N. and Simpson, V. R. 2000. The prevalence of non-breeding animals in raptor populations: evidence from rings, radio markers and transect studies. Oikos 91:271-279. 19.
Eutermoser, A. 1961. Vogelwelt 82:101-104. 20. Kenward, R.E. 1978. Falcons and doves: factors influencing the success and selection of falcon attacks on wood pigeons. Zeitschrift für Tierökologie 47: 449-460.
21. US Federal Falconry Regulations, Chapter 50, Parts 21.28-21.29, and Golden Eagle Falconry Regulations, Chapter 50, Part 22.24, United States Code of Federal Regulations. See www.fws.gov/laws/. In New Zealand, falconry was officially legalized for only one species, the northern harrier (Circus approximans) in 2011. This was only possible with more than 25 years of efforts by the Wingspan National Bird of Prey Centre and the Raptor Association of New Zealand.  Falconry can only be practiced by persons who have obtained a falconry permit from the Department of Conservation. Tangent aspects, such as bird control and raptor rehabilitation, also use falconry techniques to achieve their goals. Unlike the US, falconry is allowed in the UK without a special licence, but there is a restriction on using only captive-bred birds. During the lengthy record debates in Westminster during the passage of the 1981 Wildlife and Campaign Bill, efforts were made by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and other lobby groups to ban falconry, but they were successfully rejected. After a centuries-old but informal existence in the UK, falconry was finally given formal legal status in the UK by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, allowing it to continue, provided that all captive birds of prey are officially banded and registered by the state. DNA tests were also available to verify the origin of the birds. Since 1982, the UK Government`s licensing requirements have been overseen by the UK`s Chief Inspector of the Wildlife Act, assisted by a group of unpaid Assistant Inspectors.
Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey. Small animals are hunted; Squirrels and rabbits are often victims of these birds. Two traditional terms are used to describe a person involved in falconry: a “falconer” steals a falcon; an “Austringer” (of French origin) steals a falcon (Accipiter, some Buteos and similar) or an eagle (Aquila or similar). In modern falconry, the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris`s falcon (Parabuteo unicinctus) and peregrine falcon (Falco perigrinus) are among the most commonly used birds of prey. The practice of hunting with a conditioned falconer is also called “hawking” or “game,” although the words hawker and peddler have been used so often to refer to small roving traders that the terms “falconer” and “falconry” now apply to most uses of birds of prey trained to catch game. However, many contemporary practitioners still use these words in their original meaning. Pass a federal falconry test (administered by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources) with a score of at least 80%. The first successful breeding of peregrine falcons in North America took place in the early 1970s by the Peregrine Fund, professor and falconer Heinz Meng and other private falconers/breeders such as David Jamieson and Les Boyd, who bred the first peregrine falcons by artificial insemination. In Britain, falconer Phillip Glasier of the Falconry Centre in Newent, Gloucestershire, has managed to win young among more than 20 species of birds of prey in captivity. Collaboration between various government agencies, non-governmental organizations and falconers has begun to complement various populations of wild birds of prey at risk.
These efforts have been the largest in North America, where large private donations, as well as funding allocations under the Endangered Species Act of 1972, have provided the funds needed to continue the release of peregrine falcons, golden eagles, bald eagles, and aplomado falcons bred in captivity. By the mid-1980s, falconers had become self-sufficient in bird sources for training and flight, in addition to the immensely significant conservation benefits of captive breeding. These English words and expressions come from falconry: the genus Accipiter is also present worldwide. Falcon expert Mike McDermott once said, “Accipiter`s attack is extremely fast, fast, and violent in every way.” They are known in falconry in Europe and North America. The northern falcon has been trained in falconry for hundreds of years and is home to a variety of birds and mammals. Other popular Accipiter species used in falconry include Cooper`s falcon and shining falcon in North America and European sparrowhawk in Europe and Eurasia. In recognition of these benefits and its cultural heritage, falconry is legally recognized in most parts of the world. Falconry is practiced in many African countries, thrives in Asia, is legal throughout America, and is hosted under the Bern Convention and the European Union`s Birds Directive.